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Abstract

We carried out six targeted structure from motion surveys using small uninhabited aerial systems over the \( M_w \) 6.4 and 7.1 ruptures of the Ridgecrest earthquake sequence in the first three months after the events. The surveys cover approximately 500 \( \times \) 500 m areas just south of Highway 178 with an average ground sample distance of 1.5 cm. The first survey took place five days after the \( M_w \) 6.4 foreshock on 9 July 2019. The final survey took place on 27 September 2019. The time between surveys increased over time, with the first five surveys taking place in the first month after the earthquake. Comparison of imagery from before and after the \( M_w \) 7.1 earthquake shows variation in slip on the main rupture and a small amount of distributed slip across the scene. Cracks can be observed and mapped in the high-resolution imagery, which show en echelon cracking, fault splays, and a northeast-striking conjugate fault at the \( M_w \) 7.1 rupture south of Highway 178 and near the dirt road. Initial postseismic results show little fault afterslip, but possible subsidence in the first 7–10 days after the earthquake, followed by uplift.

Abstract

We examine the theoretical motivations for long-lived particle (LLP) signals at the LHC in a comprehensive survey of standard model (SM) extensions. LLPs are a common prediction of a wide range of theories that address unsolved fundamental mysteries such as naturalness, dark matter, baryogenesis and neutrino masses, and represent a natural and generic possibility for physics beyond the SM (BSM). In most cases the LLP lifetime can be treated as a free parameter from the µm scale up to the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis limit of \( \sim 10^7\;\mathrm{m} \). Neutral LLPs with lifetimes above ~100 m are particularly difficult to probe, as the sensitivity of the LHC main detectors is limited by challenging backgrounds, triggers, and small acceptances. MATHUSLA is a proposal for a minimally instrumented, large-volume surface detector near ATLAS or CMS. It would search for neutral LLPs produced in HL-LHC collisions by reconstructing displaced vertices (DVs) in a low-background environment, extending the sensitivity of the main detectors by orders of magnitude in the long-lifetime regime. We study the LLP physics opportunities afforded by a MATHUSLA-like detector at the HL-LHC, assuming backgrounds can be rejected as expected. We develop a model-independent approach to describe the sensitivity of MATHUSLA to BSM LLP signals, and compare it to DV and missing energy searches at ATLAS or CMS. We then explore the BSM motivations for LLPs in considerable detail, presenting a large number of new sensitivity studies. While our discussion is especially oriented towards the long-lifetime regime at MATHUSLA, this survey underllnes the importance of a varied LLP search program at the LHC in general. By synthesizing these results into a general discussion of the top-down and bottom-up motivations for LLP searches, it is our aim to demonstrate the exceptional strength and breadth of the physics case for the construction of the MATHUSLA detector.

Abstract

Charge order is now accepted as an integral constituent of cuprate high-temperature superconductors, one that is intimately related to other electronic instabilities including anti-ferromagnetism and superconductivity. Unlike conventional Peierls density waves, the charge correlations in cuprates have been predicted to display a rich momentum space topology depending on the underlying fermiology. However, charge order has only been observed along the high-symmetry Cu–O bond directions. Here, using resonant soft X-ray scattering, we investigate the evolution of the full momentum space topology of charge correlations in \( T'-\mathrm{(Nd,Pr)_2 CuO_4} \) as a function of electron doping. We report that, when the parent Mott insulator is doped, charge correlations first emerge with full rotational symmetry in momentum space, indicating glassy charge density modulation in real space possibly seeded by local defects. At higher doping levels, the orientation of charge correlations is locked to the Cu–O bond directions, restoring a more conventional long-ranged bidirectional charge order. Through charge susceptibility calculations, we reproduce the evolution in topology of charge correlations across the antiferromagnetic phase boundary and propose a revised phase diagram of \( T'-\mathrm{Ln_2 CuO_4} \) with a superconducting region extending toward the Mott limit.

Abstract

The discovery of quantum oscillations in hole- and electron-doped cuprate families has underscored the importance of the Fermi surface in cuprate superconductivity. While the observed quantum oscillations in both families have revealed the presence of reconstructed Fermi surfaces, there remains an important distinction between the two. In hole-doped cuprates the oscillations are thought to arise from the effects of a charge density wave, while in the electron-doped cuprates it is thought that these oscillations occur from an antiferromagnetically reconstructed Fermi surface, despite the fact that the oscillations are observed in overdoped compounds, far from the putative antiferromagnetic critical point. In this work we study thin films of \( \mathrm{Pr_Cu O_{4 \pm \delta}} \), whose apparent doping can be finely tuned by annealing, allowing studies of quantum oscillations in samples straddling the critical point. We show that even though there is a mass enhancement of the quasiparticles, there are only small changes to the Fermi surface itself, suggesting that charge order is a more likely origin, with electronic correlations that are strongly dependent on the structural parameters.

Abstract

The description of disorder-induced electron localization by Anderson over 60 years ago began a quest for novel phenomena emerging from electronic interactions in the presence of disorder. Even today, the interplay of interactions and disorder remains incompletely understood. This holds in particular for strongly disordered materials where charge transport depends on ‘hopping’ between localized sites. Here we report an unexpected spin sensitivity of the electrical conductivity at the transition from diffusive to hopping conduction in a material that combines strong spin-orbit coupling and weak inter-electronic interactions. In thin films of the disordered crystalline phase change material \( \mathrm{SnSb_2 Te_4} \), a distinct change in electrical conductance with applied magnetic field is observed at low temperatures. This magnetoconductance changes sign and becomes anisotropic at the disorder-driven crossover from strongly localized (hopping) to weakly localized (diffusive) electron motion. The positive and isotropic magnetoconductance arises from disruption of spin correlations that inhibit hopping transport. This experimental observation of a recently hypothesized “spin memory” demonstrates the spin plays a previously overlooked role in the disorder-driven transition between weak and strong localization in materials with strong spin–orbit interactions.

Abstract

We investigate Palatini \( f( \mathcal{R}, \mathcal{L}_m, \mathcal{R}_{\mu\nu}T^{\mu\nu}) \) modified theories of gravity. As such, the metric and affine connection are treated as independent dynamical fields, and the gravitational Lagrangian is made a function of the Ricci scalar \( \mathcal{R} \), the matter Lagrangian density \( \mathcal{L}_{m} \), and a “matter-curvature scalar” \( \mathcal{R}_{\mu\nu}T^{\mu\nu} \). The field equations and the equations of motion for massive test particles are derived, and we find that the independent connection can be expressed as the Levi-Civita connection of an auxiliary, energy momentum–dependent metric that is related to the physical metric by a matrix transformation. Similar to metric \( f(\mathcal{R}, T, \mathcal{R}_{\mu\nu}T^{\mu\nu}) \) gravity, the field equations impose the nonconservation of the energy- momentum tensor, leading to the appearance of an extra force on massive test particles. We obtain the explicit form of the field equations for massive test particles in the case of a perfect fluid and an expression for the extra force. The nontrivial modifications to scalar fields and both linear and nonlinear electrodynamics are also considered. Finally, we detail the conditions under which the present theory is equivalent to the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theory of gravity.

Abstract

We study the potential of the LHCb experiment to discover, for the first time, the true muonium bound state. We propose a search for the vector state, which kinetically mixes with the photon and dominantly decays to electron-positron pairs. We demonstrate that a search for true muonium produced in eta meson decays and decaying at a displaced vertex can exceed a significance of 5 standard deviations assuming statistical uncertainties. We present two possible searches: an inclusive search for the electron-positron vertex, and an exclusive search which requires an additional photon and a reconstruction of the eta mass.

Abstract

We study the field of an electric point charge that is slowly lowered into an \( n + 1 \) dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. We find that if \( n > 3 \), then countably infinite nonzero multipole moments manifest to observers outside the event horizon as the charge falls in. This suggests the final state of the black hole is not characterized by a Reissner-Nordström-Tangherlini geometry. Instead, for odd \( n \), the final state either possesses a degenerate horizon, undergoes a discontinuous topological transformation during the infall of the charge, or both. For even \( n \), the final state is not guaranteed to be asymptotically flat.

Abstract

Photons from distant astronomical sources can be used as a classical source of randomness to improve fundamental tests of quantum nonlocality, wave-particle duality, and local realism through Bell’s inequality and delayed-choice quantum eraser tests inspired by Wheeler’s cosmic-scale Mach-Zehnder interferometer gedanken experiment. Such sources of random numbers may also be useful for information-theoretic applications such as key distribution for quantum cryptography. Building on the design of an astronomical random number generator developed for the recent cosmic Bell experiment [Handsteiner et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 060401 (2017)], in this paper we report on the design and characterization of a device that, with 20-nanosecond latency, outputs a bit based on whether the wavelength of an incoming photon is greater than or less than ≈700 nm. Using the one-meter telescope at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Observatory, we generated random bits from astronomical photons in both color channels from 50 stars of varying color and magnitude, and from 12 quasars with redshifts up to \( z = 3.9 \). With stars, we achieved bit rates of \( \sim1 \times 10^6\,\mathrm{Hz/m^2} \), limited by saturation of our single-photon detectors, and with quasars of magnitudes between 12.9 and 16, we achieved rates between \( \sim 10^2 \) and \( 2 \times 10^3 \,\mathrm{Hz/m^2} \). For bright quasars, the resulting bitstreams exhibit sufficiently low amounts of statistical predictability as quantified by the mutual information. In addition, a sufficiently high fraction of bits generated are of true astronomical origin in order to address both the locality and freedom-of-choice loopholes when used to set the measurement settings in a test of the Bell-CHSH inequality.

Recent Publications

Student authorFaculty author

1.

Scott J Brandenberg, Jonathan P Stewart, Pengfei Wang, Chukwuebuka C Nweke, Kenneth Hudson, Christine A Goulet, Xiaofeng Meng, Craig A Davis, Sean K Ahdi, Martin B Hudson, Andrea Donnellan, Gregory A. Lyzenga, Marlon Pierce, Jun Wang, Maria A Winters, Marie-Pierre Delisle, Joseph Lucey, Yeulwoo Kim, Timu W Gallien, Andrew Lyda, J Sean Yeung, Omar Issa, Tristan Buckreis, and Zhengxiang Yi

Ground Deformation Data From Geer Investigations of Ridgecrest Earthquake Sequence

Seismological Research Letters (2020) 1–11.
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2.

Andrea Donnellan, Gregory A. Lyzenga, Adnan Ansar, Christine A Goulet, Jun Wang, and Marlon Pierce

Targeted High-Resolution Structure From Motion Observations Over the \( M_W \) 6.4 and 7.1 Ruptures of the Ridgecrest Earthquake Sequence

Seismological Research Letters (2020) .
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3.

David Curtin, Marco Drewes, John C. McCullough, Patrick Meade, Rabindra N Mohapatra, Jessie Shelton, Brian Shuve, Elena Accomando, Cristiano Alpigiani, Stefan Antusch, Juan Carlos Arteaga-Velázquez, Brian Batell, Martin Bauer, Nikita Blinov, Karen Salomé Caballero-Mora, Jae Hyeok Chang, Eung Jin Chun, Raymond T Co, Timothy Cohen, Peter Cox, Nathaniel Craig, Csaba Csáki, Yanou Cui, Francesco D'Eramo, Luigi Delle Rose, P S Bhupal Dev, Keith R Dienes, Jeff A Dror, Rouven Essig, Jared A Evans, Jason L Evans, Arturo Fernández Tellez, Oliver Fischer, Thomas Flacke, Anthony Fradette, Claudia Frugiuele, Elina Fuchs, Tony Gherghetta, Gian F Giudice, Dmitry Gorbunov, Rick S Gupta, Claudia Hagedorn, Lawrence J Hall, Philip Harris, Juan Carlos Helo, Martin Hirsch, Yonit Hochberg, Anson Hook, Alejandro Ibarra, Seyda Ipek, Sunghoon Jung, Simon Knapen, Eric Kuflik, Zhen Liu, Salvator Lombardo, H J Lubatti, David McKeen, Emiliano Molinaro, Stefano Moretti, Natsumi Nagata, Matthias Neubert, Jose Miguel No, Emmanuel Olaiya, Gilad Perez, Michael E Peskin, David Pinner, Maxim Pospelov, Matthew Reece, Dean J Robinson, Mario Rodríguez Cahuantzi, Rinaldo Santonico, Matthias Schlaffer, Claire H Shepherd-Themistocleous, Andrew Spray, Daniel Stolarski, Martin A Subieta Vasquez, Raman Sundrum, Andrea Thamm, Brooks Thomas, Yuhsin Tsai, Brock Tweedie, Stephen M West, Charles Young, Felix Yu, Bryan Zaldivar, Yongchao Zhang, Kathryn Zurek, and José Zurita

Long-Lived Particles At the Energy Frontier: the Mathusla Physics Case

Reports on Progress in Physics 82 (2019) 116201.
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4.

Mingu Kang, Jonathan Pelliciari, Alex Frano, Nicholas P. Breznay, Enrico Schierle, Eugen Weschke, Ronny Sutarto, Yuwei He, Padraic Shafer, Elke Arenholz, Mo Chen, Keto Zhang, Alejandro Ruiz, Zeyu Hao, Sylvia Lewin, James Analytis, Yoshiharu Krockenberger, Hideki Yamamoto, Kausik Das, and Riccardo Comin

Evolution of Charge Order Topology Across a Magnetic Phase Transition in Cuprate Superconductors

Nature Physics 15 (2019) 335–340.
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Breznay2019a
5.

Nicholas P. Breznay, Corey Hayes, Nityan L Nair, Toni Helm, James G Analytis, Ross D McDonald, Zengwei Zhu, Yoshiharu Krockenberger, Hiroshi Irie, Hideki Yamamoto, K A Modic, Alex Frano, Padraic Shafer, and Elke Arenholz

Interplay of Structure and Charge Order Revealed by Quantum Oscillations in Thin Films of \( \mathrm{Pr_2 Cu O_{4 \pm\delta}} \)

Physical Review B 100 (2019) 235111.
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6.

Johannes Reindl, Hanno Volker, Nicholas P. Breznay, and Matthias Wuttig

Persistence of Spin Memory in a Crystalline, Insulating Phase-Change Material

Npj Quantum Materials 4 (2019) 1–7.
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7.

Matthew Stephen Fox

Palatini \( f(\mathcal{R}, \mathcal{L}_m, \mathcal{R}_{\mu\nu} T^{\mu\nu}) \) gravity and its Born-Infeld semblance

Physical Review D 99 (2019) 124027.
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8.

Xabier Cid Vidal, Philip Ilten, Jonathan Plews, Brian Shuve, and Yotam Soreq

Discovering True Muonium At LHCb

Physical Review D 100 (2019) 053003.
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<p>Dark photon parameter space in dark photon mass and kinetic mixing with (gray) previous limits and future reach from (magenta) Belle II, (purple) FASER, (cyan) HPS, and (green/yellow) LHCb. TM corresponds to the marked point, using Eqs. (2) and (3).</p>
9.

Matthew Stephen Fox

Multipole Hair of Schwarzschild-Tangherlini Black Holes

Journal of Mathematical Physics 60 (2019) 102502.
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10.

Calvin Leung, Amy Frances Brown, Hien Nguyen, Andrew S. Friedman, David I. Kaiser, and Jason Gallicchio

Astronomical Random Numbers for Quantum Foundations Experiments

Physical Review A 97 (2018) 042120.
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