### Abstract

We derive criteria for whether two cosmological events can have a shared causal past or a shared causal future, assuming a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe with best-fit cosmological parameters from the Planck satellite. We further derive criteria for whether either cosmic event could have been in past causal contact with our own worldline since the time of the hot “big bang,” which we take to be the end of early-universe inflation. We find that pairs of objects such as quasars on opposite sides of the sky with redshifts $$z \ge 3.65$$ have no shared causal past with each other or with our past worldline. More complicated constraints apply if the objects are at different redshifts from each other or appear at some relative angle less than 180°, as seen from Earth. We present examples of observed quasar pairs that satisfy all, some, or none of the criteria for past causal independence. Given dark energy and the recent accelerated expansion, our observable Universe has a finite conformal lifetime, and hence a cosmic event horizon at current redshift $$z = 1.87$$. We thus constrain whether pairs of cosmic events can signal each other’s worldlines before the end of time. Lastly, we generalize the criteria for shared past and future causal domains for FLRW universes with nonzero spatial curvature.

### Abstract

In heteroepitaxy, lattice mismatch between the deposited material and the underlying surface strongly affects nucleation and growth processes. The effect of mismatch is well studied in atoms with growth kinetics typically dominated by bond formation with interaction lengths on the order of one lattice spacing. In contrast, less is understood about how mismatch affects crystallization of larger particles, such as globular proteins and nanoparticles, where interparticle interaction energies are often comparable to thermal fluctuations and are short ranged, extending only a fraction of the particle size. Here, using colloidal experiments and simulations, we find particles with short-range attractive interactions form crystals on isotropically strained lattices with spacings significantly larger than the interaction length scale. By measuring the free-energy cost of dimer formation on monolayers of increasing uniaxial strain, we show the underlying mismatched substrate mediates an entropy-driven attractive interaction extending well beyond the interaction length scale. Remarkably, because this interaction arises from thermal fluctuations, lowering temperature causes such substrate- mediated attractive crystals to dissolve. Such counterintuitive results underscore the crucial role of entropy in heteroepitaxy in this technologically important regime. Ultimately, this entropic component of lattice mismatched crystal growth could be used to develop unique methods for heterogeneous nucleation and growth of single crystals for applications ranging from protein crystallization to controlling the assembly of nanoparticles into ordered, functional superstructures. In particular, the construction of substrates with spatially modulated strain profiles would exploit this effect to direct self-assembly, whereby nucleation sites and resulting crystal morphology can be controlled directly through modifications of the substrate.

### Abstract

We experimentally study the ghost critical field (GCF), a magnetic field scale for the suppression of superconducting fluctuations, using Hall effect and magnetoresistance measurements on a disordered superconducting thin film near its transition temperature $$T_c$$. We observe an increase in the Hall effect with a maximum in field that tracks the upper critical field below $$T_c$$, vanishes near $$T_c$$, and returns to higher fields above $$T_c$$. Such a maximum has been observed in studies of the Nernst effect and identified as the GCF. Magnetoresistance measurements near Tc indicate quenching of superconducting fluctuations, agree with established theoretical descriptions, and allow us to extract the GCF and other parameters. Above $$T_c$$, the Hall peak field is quantitatively distinct from the GCF, and we contrast this finding with ongoing studies of the Nernst effect and superconducting fluctuations in unconventional and thin-film superconductors.

### Abstract

We present a microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap with a pair of integrated waveguides that generate a standing microwave field resonant with the 171Yb+ hyperfine qubit. The waveguides are engineered to position the wave antinode near the center of the trap, resulting in maximum field amplitude and uniformity along the trap axis. By calibrating the relative amplitudes and phases of the waveguide currents, we can control the polarization of the microwave field to reduce off-resonant coupling to undesired Zeeman sublevels. We demonstrate single-qubit π-rotations as fast as 1 μs with less than 6% variation in Rabi frequency over an 800 μm microwave interaction region. Fully compensating pulse sequences further improve the uniformity of X-gates across this interaction region.

### Abstract

A definition of quantum singularity for the case of static spacetimes has has recently been extended to conformally static spacetimes. Here the theory behind quantum singularities in conformally static spacetimes is reviewed and then applied to a class of spherically symmetric, conformally static spacetimes, including as special cases those studied by Roberts, by Fonarev, and by Husain et al. We use solutions of the generally coupled, massless Klein-Gordon equation as test fields. In this way we find the ranges of metric parameters and coupling coefficients for which classical timelike singularities in these spacetimes are healed quantum mechanically.

### Abstract

We present a simple cryostat purpose built for use with surface-electrode ion traps, designed around an affordable, large cooling power commercial pulse tube refrigerator. A modular vacuum enclosure with a single vacuum space facilitates interior access and enables rapid turnaround and flexibility for future modifications. Long rectangular windows provide nearly 360 degrees of optical access in the plane of the ion trap, while a circular bottom window near the trap enables NA 0.4 light collection without the need for in-vacuum optics. We evaluate the system's mechanical and thermal characteristics and we quantify ion trapping performance by trapping 40Ca+, finding small stray electric fields, long ion lifetimes, and low ion heating rates.

### Abstract

We report the design, fabrication and characterization of a microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap that supports controlled transport through the two-dimensional intersection of linear trapping zones arranged in a 90° cross. The trap is fabricated with very large scalable integration techniques which are compatible with scaling to a large quantum information processor. The shape of the radio-frequency electrodes is optimized with a genetic algorithm to reduce axial pseudopotential barriers and minimize ion heating during transport. Seventy-eight independent dc control electrodes enable fine control of the trapping potentials. We demonstrate reliable ion transport between junction legs and determine the rate of ion loss due to transport. Doppler-cooled ions survive more than $$10^5$$ round-trip transits between junction legs without loss and more than 65 consecutive round trips without laser cooling.

### Abstract

When matter falls past the horizon of a large black hole, the expectation from string theory is that the configuration thermalizes and the information in the probe is rather quickly scrambled away. The traditional view of a classical unique spacetime near a black hole horizon conflicts with this picture. The question then arises as to what spacetime does the probe actually see as it crosses a horizon, and how does the background geometry imprint its signature onto the thermal properties of the probe. In this work, we explore these questions through an extensive series of numerical simulations of D0 branes. We determine that the D0 branes quickly settle into an incompressible symmetric state—thermalized within a few oscillations through a process driven entirely by internal nonlinear dynamics. Surprisingly, thermal background fluctuations play no role in this mechanism. Signatures of the background fields in this thermal state arise either through fluxes, i.e. black hole hair; or if the probe expands to the size of the horizon—which we see evidence of. We determine simple scaling relations for the D0 branes’ equilibrium size, time to thermalize, lifetime, and temperature in terms of their number, initial energy, and the background fields. Our results are consistent with the conjecture that black holes are the fastest scramblers as seen by matrix theory.

# Recent Publications

Student authorFaculty author

51. Andrew S Friedman, David I Kaiser, and Jason Gallicchio The shared causal pasts and futures of cosmological events Physical Review D 88 (2013) . John R. Savage, Stefan F. Hopp, Rajesh Ganapathy, Sharon Gerbode, Andreas Heuer, and I. Cohen Entropy-Driven Crystal Formation on Highly Strained Substrates Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (2013) 9301-9304. Nicholas P. Breznay and Aharon Kapitulnik Observation of the ghost critical field for superconducting fluctuations in a disordered TaN thin film Physical Review B 88 (2013) 223. Yang Bai, Hsin-Chia Cheng, Jason Gallicchio, and Jiayin Gu A toolkit of the stop search via the chargino decay Journal of High Energy Physics 2013 (2013) . C. M. Shappert, J. T. Merrill, K. R. Brown, J. M. Amini, C. Volin, Charlie Doret, H. Hayden, C. -S. Pai, K. R. Brown, and A. W. Harter Spatially uniform single-qubit gate operations with near-field microwaves and composite pulse compensation New Journal of Physics 15 (2013) 083503. Thomas McCaffree Helliwell and D. A. Konkowski Quantum singularities in spherically symmetric, conformally static spacetimes Physical Review D 87 (2013) 104041. G. Vittorini, K. Wright, K. R. Brown, A. W. Harter, and Charlie Doret Modular cryostat for ion trapping with surface-electrode ion traps Review of Scientific Instruments 84 (2013) 043112. Jason Gallicchio and Matthew D Schwartz Quark and gluon jet substructure Journal of High Energy Physics 2013 (2013) . K. Wright, J. M. Amini, D. L. Faircloth, C. Volin, Charlie Doret, H. Hayden, C. -S. Pai, D. W. Landgren, D. Denison, T. Killian, R. E. Slusher, and A. W. Harter Reliable transport through a microfabricated X-junction surface-electrode ion trap New Journal of Physics 15 (2013) 033004. Paul L. Riggins and Vatche Sahakian Black hole thermalization, D0 brane dynamics, and emergent spacetime Physical Review D 86 (2012) 046005.