We propose a practical scheme to use photons from causally disconnected cosmic sources to set the detectors in an experimental test of Bell’s inequality. In current experiments, with settings determined by quantum random number generators, only a small amount of correlation between detector settings and local hidden variables, established less than a millisecond before each experiment, would suffice to mimic the predictions of quantum mechanics. By setting the detectors using pairs of quasars or patches of the cosmic microwave background, observed violations of Bell’s inequality would require any such coordination to have existed for billions of years—an improvement of 20 orders of magnitude.
We derive criteria for whether two cosmological events can have a shared causal past or a shared causal future, assuming a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe with best-fit cosmological parameters from the Planck satellite. We further derive criteria for whether either cosmic event could have been in past causal contact with our own worldline since the time of the hot “big bang,” which we take to be the end of early-universe inflation. We find that pairs of objects such as quasars on opposite sides of the sky with redshifts \( z \ge 3.65 \) have no shared causal past with each other or with our past worldline. More complicated constraints apply if the objects are at different redshifts from each other or appear at some relative angle less than 180°, as seen from Earth. We present examples of observed quasar pairs that satisfy all, some, or none of the criteria for past causal independence. Given dark energy and the recent accelerated expansion, our observable Universe has a finite conformal lifetime, and hence a cosmic event horizon at current redshift \( z = 1.87 \). We thus constrain whether pairs of cosmic events can signal each other’s worldlines before the end of time. Lastly, we generalize the criteria for shared past and future causal domains for FLRW universes with nonzero spatial curvature.
In heteroepitaxy, lattice mismatch between the deposited material and the underlying surface strongly affects nucleation and growth processes. The effect of mismatch is well studied in atoms with growth kinetics typically dominated by bond formation with interaction lengths on the order of one lattice spacing. In contrast, less is understood about how mismatch affects crystallization of larger particles, such as globular proteins and nanoparticles, where interparticle interaction energies are often comparable to thermal fluctuations and are short ranged, extending only a fraction of the particle size. Here, using colloidal experiments and simulations, we find particles with short-range attractive interactions form crystals on isotropically strained lattices with spacings significantly larger than the interaction length scale. By measuring the free-energy cost of dimer formation on monolayers of increasing uniaxial strain, we show the underlying mismatched substrate mediates an entropy-driven attractive interaction extending well beyond the interaction length scale. Remarkably, because this interaction arises from thermal fluctuations, lowering temperature causes such substrate- mediated attractive crystals to dissolve. Such counterintuitive results underscore the crucial role of entropy in heteroepitaxy in this technologically important regime. Ultimately, this entropic component of lattice mismatched crystal growth could be used to develop unique methods for heterogeneous nucleation and growth of single crystals for applications ranging from protein crystallization to controlling the assembly of nanoparticles into ordered, functional superstructures. In particular, the construction of substrates with spatially modulated strain profiles would exploit this effect to direct self-assembly, whereby nucleation sites and resulting crystal morphology can be controlled directly through modifications of the substrate.
We experimentally study the ghost critical field (GCF), a magnetic field scale for the suppression of superconducting fluctuations, using Hall effect and magnetoresistance measurements on a disordered superconducting thin film near its transition temperature \( T_c \). We observe an increase in the Hall effect with a maximum in field that tracks the upper critical field below \( T_c \), vanishes near \( T_c \), and returns to higher fields above \( T_c \). Such a maximum has been observed in studies of the Nernst effect and identified as the GCF. Magnetoresistance measurements near Tc indicate quenching of superconducting fluctuations, agree with established theoretical descriptions, and allow us to extract the GCF and other parameters. Above \( T_c \), the Hall peak field is quantitatively distinct from the GCF, and we contrast this finding with ongoing studies of the Nernst effect and superconducting fluctuations in unconventional and thin-film superconductors.
We present a microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap with a pair of integrated waveguides that generate a standing microwave field resonant with the 171Yb+ hyperfine qubit. The waveguides are engineered to position the wave antinode near the center of the trap, resulting in maximum field amplitude and uniformity along the trap axis. By calibrating the relative amplitudes and phases of the waveguide currents, we can control the polarization of the microwave field to reduce off-resonant coupling to undesired Zeeman sublevels. We demonstrate single-qubit π-rotations as fast as 1 μs with less than 6% variation in Rabi frequency over an 800 μm microwave interaction region. Fully compensating pulse sequences further improve the uniformity of X-gates across this interaction region.
We present a simple cryostat purpose built for use with surface-electrode ion traps, designed around an affordable, large cooling power commercial pulse tube refrigerator. A modular vacuum enclosure with a single vacuum space facilitates interior access and enables rapid turnaround and flexibility for future modifications. Long rectangular windows provide nearly 360 degrees of optical access in the plane of the ion trap, while a circular bottom window near the trap enables NA 0.4 light collection without the need for in-vacuum optics. We evaluate the system's mechanical and thermal characteristics and we quantify ion trapping performance by trapping 40Ca+, finding small stray electric fields, long ion lifetimes, and low ion heating rates.
, Andrew S. Friedman, and David I. Kaiser
Testing Bell’s Inequality with Cosmic Photons: Closing the Setting-Independence LoopholePhysical Review Letters 112 (2014) 195.
, , , , and
Physical Attributes and Assembly of PEG-linked Immuno-labeled Gold Nanoparticles for OCM Image Contrast in Tissue Engineering and Developmental BiologyOptical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVIII 8934 (2014) 89342V.
Andrew S Friedman, David I Kaiser, and
The shared causal pasts and futures of cosmological eventsPhysical Review D 88 (2013) .
John R. Savage, Stefan F. Hopp, Rajesh Ganapathy,, Andreas Heuer, and I. Cohen
Entropy-Driven Crystal Formation on Highly Strained SubstratesProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (2013) 9301-9304.
and Aharon Kapitulnik
Observation of the ghost critical field for superconducting fluctuations in a disordered TaN thin filmPhysical Review B 88 (2013) 223.
Yang Bai, Hsin-Chia Cheng,, and Jiayin Gu
A toolkit of the stop search via the chargino decayJournal of High Energy Physics 2013 (2013) .
C. M. Shappert, J. T. Merrill, K. R. Brown, J. M. Amini, C. Volin,, H. Hayden, C. -S. Pai, K. R. Brown, and A. W. Harter
Spatially uniform single-qubit gate operations with near-field microwaves and composite pulse compensationNew Journal of Physics 15 (2013) 083503.
and D. A. Konkowski
Quantum singularities in spherically symmetric, conformally static spacetimesPhysical Review D 87 (2013) 104041.
G. Vittorini, K. Wright, K. R. Brown, A. W. Harter, and
Modular cryostat for ion trapping with surface-electrode ion trapsReview of Scientific Instruments 84 (2013) 043112.
and Matthew D Schwartz
Quark and gluon jet substructureJournal of High Energy Physics 2013 (2013) .